Examples of Gerunds, Prepositions, etc.

Outline Example

I. Introduction
A. Background: The Ptolemaic Dynasty and Cleopatra’s reign as the last ruler of it, ending 1500 years of Greek occupation and ushering in the Roman Empire.
B. Thesis statement (hook with explanation of what your paper will be about)
Although Cleopatra was extremely intelligent and passionate, she and Antony allowed their love to blind them to reality, leading to both of their deaths.
II. Cleopatra became queen because she was superior to her brothers and sisters.
(First subtopic: first question from note cards)
A. Excellent Education and Memory (First note card)
1. She learned 7 languages at the best university at the time. She even knew the “common” man’s Egyptian, which none of her other siblings learned, making her more popular with locals.
(supporting evidence 1: second note card)
2. She knew math, literature, astronomy, and medicine.
(supporting evidence 2: third note card)
A. More intelligent
1. She rolled herself up in a carpet to hide from Caesar’s guards.
(supporting evidence 1: fourth note card)
2. She allied with Caesar to protect Egypt (fifth note card
(supporting evidence 2: fifth note card)
III. She married people to keep Egypt free
(Second subtopic: second question from note cards)
A. Caesar married her
1.Cleopatra and he were trying to make an empire together.
2.Senators assassinated him, fearing she (a foreigner) was gaining too much power.
B.Antony helped her gain more power by marrying her

1.He conquered many lands and gave them to her, not Rome.
2.He had kids with her and gave them thrones in each of their conquered lands.
IV. Octavius outsmarted them
(Third subtopic: third question from note cards)
A.He sent too few troops to Anthony on purpose
1. Caused him to lose the war
2. Helped him get Lepidus and Antony out as joint rulers of Rome (they had all three divided the empire among themselves)
B.Started making up stories about Antony and telling the public
1.Said Antony wanted to take over Rome with the foreigner, Cleopatra, who had already destroyed Caesar.
2.Said her Roman-Egyptian dynasty would destroy Rome.

V. Final Defeat—End of a Dynasty
(Fourth subtopic: fourth question rephrased into a statement)
A.Antony lost his common sense over his love of Cleopatra
1.He attacked with ships even though he was a better fighter on land.
2.He listened to Cleopatra, who didn’t want to move North, but instead wanted to fight at sea to be closer to Egypt in case of retreat.
B.Octavius fought in a sneaky way
1. If soldiers left Antony, he promised them land.
2. He got support from Antony’s former allies of Greece, Asia Minor and N. Africa in exchange for bribes.
VI. After the Fall
(Fifth subtopic: fifth question rephrased as a statement)
B. Octavius went into Alexandria to conquer them in battle
1. Cleopatra locked herself up in a giant tomb with her riches while Antony ran after her.
2. The people dropped their weapons and instantly surrendered when the Romans arrived.
3. Octavius asked for Cleopatra so that he could bring her back to Rome.
4. He wanted to drag her through the streets and make her a slave.
5. He became the first emperor of Rome, crowning himself “Octavius Caesar”
B. Antony and Cleopatra died
1. Antony stabbed himself in the stomach when he heard a rumor that Cleopatra was dead.
2. She sent a message that she was in the tomb, but he had already stabbed himself. He was carried to her and died in her arms.
3. She had her servants bring her a poisonous snake to bite her so that she could die too.
4. She didn’t want to be a slave to the Romans is one reason.
5. Another reason is that she wanted to die and be with Antony in the afterlife.
VII. Conclusion: A restatement of the main points of your paper
Cleopatra turned out to be a strong leader for Egypt, but she should have relied more on Antony’s abilities as a soldier instead of her own fear and that is why Rome defeated them. If she would have let him fight his way, they would have eventually ruled all of Rome.

Research Paper Outline

Description of character
Description of setting
Interesting fact (or made into a question)
Quote from expert
Although she had a hooked nose and a rather large chin for a woman, Queen Cleopatra’s intelligence made even the strongest and smartest of Roman leaders fall in love with her.
Thesis statement: Explain what you are writing about
Cleopatra was a great ruler because her intelligence helped keep her in power through manipulating Roman leaders.
Supporting point 1